|1250 by topic|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Art and literature|
|1250 in poetry|
|Ab urbe condita||2003|
|Balinese saka calendar||1171–1172|
|English Regnal year||34 Hen. 3 – 35 Hen. 3|
|Chinese calendar||己酉年 (Earth Rooster)|
3947 or 3740
— to —
庚戌年 (Metal Dog)
3948 or 3741
|- Vikram Samvat||1306–1307|
|- Shaka Samvat||1171–1172|
|- Kali Yuga||4350–4351|
|Japanese calendar||Kenchō 2|
|Minguo calendar||662 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||1792–1793|
1376 or 995 or 223
— to —
1377 or 996 or 224
- The world population is estimated at between 400 and 416 million individuals.
- World climate transitions from the Medieval Warm Period to the Little Ice Age.
- Medieval music: The Notre Dame school of polyphony ends.
- February 2 – King Eric XI (Eriksson) dies and is succeeded by the 10-year-old Valdemar I, who is the eldest son of Birger jarl. He is elected as ruler of Sweden, and becomes the first Swedish king of the House of Folkung.
- October 12 – A great storm shifts the mouth of the River Rother in England 12 miles (20 km) to the west; a battering series of strong storms significantly alters other coastal geography around Romney Marsh.
- December 13 – Emperor Frederick II dies, beginning the 23-year-long "Great Interregnum". Frederick is the last Holy Roman Emperor of the Hohenstaufen dynasty; after the interregnum, the empire passes to the Habsburgs.
- The Lombard League dissolves upon the death of its member states' nemesis, Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor.
- King Afonso III (the Boulonnais) captures the Algarve from the Moors, thus completing the expulsion of the Moors from Portugal.
- Albertus Magnus isolates the element arsenic, as the 8th discovered metal. He also first uses the word "oriole" to describe a type of bird (most likely the golden oriole).
- The Rialto Bridge in Venice (in modern-day Italy) is converted from a pontoon bridge to a permanent, raised wooden structure.
- The Ponts Couverts fortified bridges of Strasbourg (in modern-day France) are completed.
- Vincent of Beauvais completes his proto-encyclopedic work Speculum Maius ("Greater mirror").
- The first of the Parlements of Ancien Régime France is established.
- Villard de Honnecourt draws the first known image of a sawmill.
- The first usage is made of the English word "cuckold", according to the Oxford English Dictionary.
- July 9 – The Qaymariyya tribe engineers a coup d'état to hand over Damascus to An-Nasir Yusuf. The garrison in the citadel surrenders later to him.
- A kurultai is called by Batu Khan in Siberia as part of maneuverings which will elect Möngke Khan as khan of the Mongol Empire in 1251.
- Starting in this year and ending in 1275, the Muslim Shougeng Pu, likely a Persian or an Arab, serves as the Commissioner of Merchant Shipping for the Song dynasty Chinese seaport at Quanzhou, due to his effort in defeating pirates.
- April 8 – Battle of Fariskur: Louis IX (the Saint) is captured by Baibars' Mamluk army while he is in Egypt conducting the Seventh Crusade; he later has to ransom himself.
- April 30 – King Louis IX (the Saint) is released by his Egyptian captors after paying a ransom of one million dinars and turning over the city of Damietta.
- May 2 – Al-Muazzam Turanshah, Ayyubid ruler of Egypt, is murdered, ending effective Ayyubid Dynasty rule in the country. He is briefly succeeded by his widow, Sultana Shajar al-Durr.
- July 21 – Aybak becomes ruler of Egypt, beginning the Bahri Dynasty of the Mamluk Sultanate. After 5 days he stands down and the 6-year-old Al-Ashraf Musa is nominally proclaimed sultan.
- The Welayta state is founded in modern-day Ethiopia.
- In Tunis, a popular rebellion against newly arrived, wealthy and influential Andalusian refugees breaks out, and is violently put down.
- The Flemish town of Douai emits the first recorded redeemable annuities in medieval Europe, confirming a trend of consolidation of local public debt started in 1218, in Rheims.
- The Sienese bankers belonging to the firm known as the Gran Tavola, under the steering of the Bonsignori Brothers, become the main financiers of the Papacy.
- April 8 – John Tristan, son of Louis IX (d. 1270)
- Adolf II of Waldeck, prince-bishop of Liège (d. 1302)
- Agnes of Baden, German noblewoman (d. 1295)
- Albert II of Saxony, German nobleman (d. 1298)
- Albert III, German nobleman and knight (d. 1300)
- Albertus de Chiavari, Italian Master General (d. 1300)
- Allamah al-Hilli, Persian Shia theologian (d. 1325)
- Asher ben Jehiel, German Jewish rabbi (d. 1327)
- Beatrice of Savoy, Swiss noblewoman (d. 1292)
- Bonconte I da Montefeltro, Italian general (d. 1289)
- Diether of Nassau, archbishop of Trier (d. 1307)
- Dmitry of Pereslavl, Kievan Grand Prince (d. 1294)
- Esclaramunda of Foix, queen of Majorca (d. 1315)
- Fra Dolcino, Italian priest and reformist (d. 1307)
- Grigorije II of Ras, Serbian monk-scribe (d. 1321)
- Guido Cavalcanti, Italian poet and writer (d. 1300)
- Jeanne de Montfort, Swiss noblewoman (d. 1300)
- John IV (Laskaris), emperor of Nicaea (d. 1305)
- Konrad II of Masovia, Polish nobleman (d. 1294)
- Margaret of Burgundy, queen of Sicily (d. 1308)
- Matteo I Visconti, Italian imperial vicar (d. 1322)
- Mordechai ben Hillel, German scholar (d. 1298)
- Nijō Tameyo, Japanese official and poet (d. 1338)
- Niklot I, German nobleman and knight (d. 1323)
- Rhys ap Maredudd, Welsh nobleman (d. 1292)
- Robert II, French nobleman and knight (d. 1302)
- Sancho of Aragon, Spanish archbishop (d. 1275)
- Theodoric of Freiberg, German physicist (d. 1311)
- Záviš of Falkenstein, Bohemian nobleman (d. 1290)
- February 2 – Eric XI (Eriksson), king of Sweden (b. 1216)
- February 6 – Geoffrey VI, French nobleman and knight
- February 8
- February 11 – Jean de Ronay, French Grand Master
- March 29 – Ludolph of Ratzeburg, German bishop
- April 6
- May 2 – Al-Muazzam Turanshah, Ayyubid ruler of Egypt
- May 21 – Humbert V, French nobleman and knight (b. 1198)
- May 26 – Peter I (Mauclerc), French nobleman (b. 1187)
- May 27 – Raniero Capocci, Italian priest and cardinal
- June 7 – Vitslav I, Danish nobleman and knight (b. 1180)
- June 18 – Theresa of Portugal, queen of León (b. 1176)
- August 10 – Eric IV (Ploughpenny), king of Denmark
- October 4 – Herman VI, German nobleman and knight
- October 12 – Richard Wendene, English bishop (b. 1219)
- December 13 – Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor (b. 1194)
- Alice of Schaerbeek, Flemish Cistercian lay sister (b. 1220)
- Gilbertus Anglicus, English physician and writer (b. 1180)
- Julian of Speyer, German Franciscan composer and poet
- Leonardo of Pisa, Italian mathematician and writer (b. 1170)
- Romée de Villeneuve, French nobleman and seneschal
- Shihab al-Din Muhammad al-Nasawi, Persian biographer
- Walter of Serviliano, Italian Benedictine hermit and abbot
- Yang Miaozhen, Chinese female military leader (b. 1193)
- Le Roy Ladurie, Emmanuel; Bray, Barbara (1971). Times of Feast, Times of Famine: a History of Climate Since the Year 1000. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. ISBN 0-374-52122-0. OCLC 164590.
- Humphreys, R. Stephen (1977). From Saladin to the Mongols: The Ayyubids of Damascus, 1193–1260, pp. 305–307. State University of New York Press.
- According to a monograph on the maritime economy of the Song dynasty written by Jitsuzo Kuwabara (桑原騭藏, 1870–1931).
- Humphreys, R. Stephen (1977). From Saladin to the Mongols: The Ayyubids of Damascus 1193-1260. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 9780873952637.
- de Epalza, Miguel (1999). Negotiating cultures: bilingual surrender treaties in Muslim-Crusader Spain under James the Conqueror. Brill. p. 106. ISBN 90-04-11244-8.
- Zuijderduijn, Jaco (2009). Medieval Capital Markets. Markets for renten, state formation and private investment in Holland (1300-1550). Leiden/Boston: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-17565-5.
- Catoni, Giuliano. "Bonsignori". Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani. Retrieved December 20, 2011.
- "Frederick II | Biography, Accomplishments, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved September 29, 2020.